My Y chromosome results identify me as a member of haplogroup R1b1a1a2a1a1c2b1b4b   S6915, CTS10050/M10145, PH4355 (ISOGG)


See the ISOGG Wiki page on the Genographic Project at: http://www.isogg.org/wiki/Genographic_Project 

Position on YSOGG Tree (Click on image for enlargement)

Earliest known Y-DNA ancestor is Johann Koenrad Löwenstein

Birth: ±1700 -- Darmstadt, Germany
Death: 21 October 1783 -- Deventer, The Netherlands

Religion: Evangelisch Lutherisch

Darmstadt: 49.8710°N, 8.6490°E

Since the early 1700's all members of the Lowensteyn / Lowensteijn family have lived in The Netherlands, although a few have emigrated to Canada and New Zealand during the later part of the previous century and even more recently.

Darmstadt is situated in the southern part of Hesse, which is in western-central Germany. It contains a cluster around Frankfurt of U106/L48 and this may fit with the idea that this group migrated via the Danube and up the Rhine.
This subclade is defined by the presence of the marker L48/S162/ and is also known as R1b1b2a1a4 (by Family Tree DNA - FTDNA). It is the largest subclade of R1b1b2a1a1.

The Dutch Y-chromosomal landscape
YHGs were manually assigned to all 2085 samples of the Dutch dataset. In total, 32 different YHGs were observed. YHGs I (28%) and R (62%) are by far the most common. Within YHG R, subgroups R1b-L48 (15%), R1b-M405 (14%), and R1b-S116 (9%) are the three most common ones (Table 1, Fig. 3). The combined dataset also mainly contains YHGs I (26%) and R (63%
In: The Dutch Y-chromosomal landscape
Eveline Altena, Risha Smeding, Kristiaan J. van der Gaag, Maarten H. D. Larmuseau, Ronny Decorte, Oscar Lao, Manfred Kayser, Thirsa Kraaijenbrink & Peter de Knijff
European Journal of Human Genetics volume 28, pages 287–299 (2020)

R1b1b2a1a1d has a subclade R1b1a2a1a1a4a* and Z159+(FTDNA) R1b1a2a1a1c2b1b [ISOGG], defined by the markers L47/S170 and Z159+. For more information on R1b1a2a1a1c2b1b see Wikipedia


L48 = ~ 2800 -2350 BC
L47 = about 2300 BC
S3251 = about 1300 BC
Family Tree DNA

As the research and the debates continue, the age and origins of R1b1a2a1a1c2b1b change all the time.

It was thought that R1b-U106 arose in central Europe, perhaps around Austria, and migrated to northern Europe, especially up the Rhine River, which ends in the Netherlands, not too far from Frisia. Or perhaps more likely, R1b-U106 arose in Northern Germany/Denmark and moved throughout western Europe, including the British Isles.

A problem with these theories is that they look at modern populations, not the populations of Europe about 4,000 years ago, when R1b-U106 is likely to have been "born."

There is also the problem that what we do know about R1b-U106 and its distribution in the present population of Europe is the result of a self-selection process in the testing. Most of the tests are from Americans and most Americans are descended from British Isles ancestors and perhaps secondarily from German ancestors. What would we know about the distribution of R1b-U106 in modern European locations if more people with eastern European, French, Spanish and Italian ancestry were tested? Recent testing in the Netherlands and Flanders seems to support a northern European origin of R1b-U106.

A study entitled "Phylogeography of human Y chromosome haplogroup R1b1b2 (R-M269) in Europe" was released at a recent European population genetics conference. This study tested over 2,000 European men for both U106 and U152, two of the major subclades of R1b1b2 in Europe. Here are two quotes from this study's abstract: "The paragroup R1b1b2*(xR1b1b2g, R1b1b2h) and the haplogroups R1b1b2g and R1b1b2h showed quite different frequency distribution patterns within Europe, with frequency peaks in the Iberian Peninsula, northern Europe and northern Italy/France, respectively." It also found that the "overall frequency pattern of R1b1b2 haplogroup is suggestive of multiple events of migration and expansion within Europe rather than a single and uniform spread of people from an Iberian Ice-age refugium." R1b1b2g is the old name for R1b1b2a1a, defined by U106, and R1b1b2h is the old name for R1b1b2a1b4, defined by U152.

However, this study will still not solve the problem of extrapolating from modern populations to the original R1b-U106 population 3-4,000 years ago, which by the way was before there were such things as "Germanic tribes," such as the Saxons or Frisians. (Mike Maddi)

Culture is generally inherited from father to son, a long list of factors can, over time, change the culture of a particular line. Such changes are more likely to happen during great uphea- vals, such as when one culture invades another or when a successful population expands and supplants the culture of another region.

The result of this is that a particular haplogroup may be mostly of one culture, but a sub-clade may be mostly part of another. Even over the course of recorded history, it's difficult to find a haplogroup that can uniquely be defined as existing in a particular place, or belonging to a particular culture. For example, in my clade of S6915 there are lines which are German, Danish, British and Dutch. The spread of that clade alone means that its genes can end up in multiple cultures over timescales of centuries.

“As far as history is concerned, the link between a haplogroup founder and a clade is but a moment in time. It's vital to look only at cultures which are contemporary to the time of that haplogroup’s formation. Ideas such as U106 being "Germanic"; and P312 being "Celtic", or whatever modern equivalent you want to draw, are dead. Instead, we have to look at the migrations of each individual lineage.” (Iain McDonald)

Interesting R migration theory map by Charles Moore

The map below represents recent results from the R1b-U106 Project from FamilyTreeDNA. As Americans make up the majority of participants, a UK (especially England) bias exists in the numbers, and Denmark & Austria should have higher numbers, but the overall flow is rather spot on. As our sub-clade, L48 makes up roughly 1/2 of all U106, you can essentially divide the numbers by 2. The top locations are consistently shown to be the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, northern Germany & the Rhineland, England & the Scottish Lowlands, and Denmark.


R1b Map

Click on map for enlargement


FTDNA DYS markers


(click on image for values)


R-U106 Haplo Tree
(click on image for enlargement) 

R-U106 Haplo Tree



Thomas Krahn, who runs one of the DNA testing labs for FT-DNA has created a couple of online sites which lists the numbers tested for each SNP and the numbers tested positive. For L48 & its subclades you can see a part of one of his sites at:

See also:

It is important to realize that one receives one's Y-DNA from the father, who got it from his father, who got it from his father, and so on. Since mothers do not have Y-chromosomes to pass down in any generation, testing the Y-DNA only traces the paternal line, but no other. This means that any ancestry from the mother's side, father's mother's side, grandfather's mother's side, and so on, is not represented in the Y-DNA. As a result, tracing this line can only lead to one origin, and doesn't provide any breakdown of various ethnic origins that may have come from other ancestors.

 Benelux Map

Benelux map of R1b-S21
Click on map for enlargement


I have been stuck in S6915 for a long time and there aren’t many matches, a few from England, there is a Dane, someone dug up a grave in Iceland and found a S6915 while in Slovakia a Vandal or Visigoth chieftain from around 500 AD was also S6915. Altogether a very meager sample. All it shows is that S6915 got around.

The American Society of Human Genetics Releases Statement on Genetic Ancestry Testing at 58th Annual Meeting ASHG Statement Provides Framework for Understanding the Issues and Implications, Includes Recommendations Regarding Ancestry Assessment.

The American Society of Human Genetics Ancestry Testing Statement November 13, 2008



FTDNA mtDNA(HVR1), mtDNAPlus(HVR2) and Geno 2.0 results indicate Haplogroup T2b

My earliest mtDNA known ancestor is Enneken Geelink

Baptism: 11 October 1658 -- Winterswijk, The Netherlands
Death: 13 December 1746 -- Corle, ?(Winterswijk)?, The Netherlands
Winterswijk: 51.9670°N - 6.7170°E
51° 58' 0" N - 6° 43' 0" E

AGE: 8,400 ± 3,150 YEARS AGO

Born at the beginning of the Neolithic Revolution, this lineage likely originated in West Asia.
Today, it is present at the highest frequencies in Croatia (12 percent), Tunisia (9 percent), and Greece (5 percent). In Iran, it is about 4 percent of maternal lineages, and it is about 3 percent of maternal lineages in Armenia. It is also part of some Jewish Diaspora population groups. It is about 7 percent of the population in Bulgaria. Elsewhere in Europe, this line is around 6 percent of the population in Germany and around 5 percent of the population in the British Isles, France, and the Netherlands.

T2b is widespread in Eurasia. It originated in the Middle East during the Neolithic, around 10,000 years ago, it was during the spread of agriculture during the Neolithic that this lineage became much more widespread. Today it is found at highest frequencies in parts eastern and Central Europe, and has a spotty distribution in Central Asia that is probably the result of the subsequent spread of East Asian lineages throughout the region by the Turks and Mongols, swamping out the older Neolithic patterns.

Sense About Genetic Ancestry Testing
What can we know about your personal ancestors by looking at your DNA?
Not much. Genetic ancestry tests use some techniques that have been developed by researchers for studying differences in DNA across many groups of people. The things we know about genetic ancestry, almost without exception, are about the genetic history of whole populations.
MORE (pdf)

See also





For larger map, click on map

A = Winterswijk

B = Darmstadt

Distance ± 300 km


The Genographic Project states that early people with Haplogroup T were likely some of the first organized agriculturalists and pastoralists, and that they probably comprised the group which first brought settled agriculture and pastoralism on to the European continent, bringing the "Neolithic Revolution" to Europe; they write: "Although the haplogroup was present during the early and middle Upper Paleolithic, [Haplogroup] T is generally considered one of the main genetic signatures of the Neolithic expansions. While groups of hunter-gatherers and subsistence fishermen had been occupying much of Eurasia for tens of thousands of years, around ten thousand years ago a group of modern humans living in the Fertile Crescent-present day eastern Turkey and northern Syria-began domesticating the plants, nuts, and seeds they had been collecting. What resulted were the world's first agriculturalists, and this new cultural era is typically referred to as the Neolithic. Groups of individuals able to support larger populations with this reliable food source began migrating out of the Middle East, bringing their new technology with them. By then, humans had already settled much of the surrounding areas, but this new agricultural technology proved too successful to ignore, and the surrounding groups quickly copied these new immigrants."

DNA data indicate that while these new agriculturalists were incredibly successful at planting their technology in the surrounding groups, they were far less successful at planting their mtDNA seed. Agriculture was quickly and widely adopted, but the mtDNA lineages carried by these Neolithic expansions are found at frequencies seldom greater than 20 percent in Europe, the Middle East, and Central Asia. This is in sharp contrast to their YDNA lineages R1a and R1b which dominate Europe. An interesting explanation on why R1b could have replaced most of the older lineages in Western Europe can be found HERE .


But also:

The peopling of Europe and the cautionary tale of Y chromosome lineage R-M269, George B. J. Busby et al
Recently, the debate on the origins of the major European Y chromosome haplogroup R1b1b2-M269 has reignited, and opinion has moved away from Palaeolithic origins to the notion of a younger Neolithic spread of these chromosomes from the Near East. Here, we address this debate by investigating frequency patterns and diversity in the largest collection of R1b1b2-M269 chromosomes yet assembled. Our analysis reveals no geographical trends in diversity, in contradiction to expectation under the Neolithic hypothesis, and suggests an alternative explanation for the apparent cline in diversity recently described. We further investigate the young, STR-based time to the most recent common ancestor estimates proposed so far for R-M269-related lineages and find evidence for an appreciable effect of microsatellite choice on age estimates. As a consequence, the existing data and tools are insufficient to make credible estimates for the age of this haplogroup, and conclusions about the timing of its origin and dispersal should be viewed with a large degree of caution.

See also:



Large-scale recent expansion of European patrilineages shown by population resequencing

Chiara Batini, Pille Hallast, Daniel Zadik, Pierpaolo Maisano Delser, Andrea Benazzo, Silvia Ghirotto, Eduardo Arroyo-Pardo, Gianpiero L. Cavalleri, Peter de Knijff, Berit Myhre Dupuy, Heidi A. Eriksen, Turi E. King, Adolfo López de Munain, Ana M. López-Parra, Aphrodite Loutradis, Jelena Milasin, Andrea Novelletto, Horolma Pamjav, Antti Sajantila, Aslhan Tolun et al.

The proportion of Europeans descending from Neolithic farmers ~10 thousand years ago (KYA) or Palaeolithic hunter-gatherers has been much debated. The male-specific region of the Y chromosome (MSY) has been widely applied to this question, but unbiased estimates of diversity and time depth have been lacking. Here we show that European patrilineages underwent a recent continent-wide expansion. Resequencing of 3.7?Mb of MSY DNA in 334 males, comprising 17 European and Middle Eastern populations, defines a phylogeny containing 5,996 single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Dating indicates that three major lineages (I1, R1a and R1b), accounting for 64% of our sample, have very recent coalescent times, ranging between 3.5 and 7.3 KYA. A continuous swathe of 13/17 populations share similar histories featuring a demographic expansion starting ~2.1?4.2 KYA. Our results are compatible with ancient MSY DNA data, and contrast with data on mitochondrial DNA, indicating a widespread male-specific phenomenon that focuses interest on the social structure of Bronze Age Europe.